Standards Organizations

American National Standards Institute (ANSI): is an American non-profit organization that oversees standards development in standards organizations within the U.S. It does not develop its own standards; rather, it coordinates conformance efforts across other standards organizations and provides accreditation programs. Several standards from CSA are cross listed with ANSI, including ANSI/CSA HGV 4.3 and ANSI/CSA HGV 4.9.

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) International: develops and publishes international standards related to materials and chemical/fuel testing. Relevant standards include those that provide test methods for different contaminants in hydrogen fuel.

CSA (Canadian Standards Association) Group: is an ANSI-accredited standards organization specializing in electrical, electronic, compressed gas and occupational health and safety standards. CSA Group also provides standards and certification training and serves as an OSHA-accredited nationally recognized testing laboratory. The main CSA standards deployed for MD/HD-ZEV fueling infrastructure are CSA/ANSI HGV 4.3: test methods for hydrogen fueling parameter evaluation and CSA/ANSI HGV 4.9: hydrogen fueling stations.

Compressed Gas Association (CGA): is a North American trade association and ANSI-accredited standards organization that develops safety and technical standards and best practices in the transport, storage, use, and disposal of compressed gases. Its members further participate in standards development in other, international standards committees [69]. The main CGA technical specification used in MD/HD-ZEV infrastructure is CGA G-5.3: Commodity Specification for Hydrogen, which classifies hydrogen by quality (impurity levels).

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CEN-CENELEC): is a separate organization from CEN that specializes in electrical and electronic standards for Europe. CEN and CEN-CENELEC have been tasked with overseeing which charger standards are adopted in Europe.

European Committee for Standardization (CEN): develops and publishes European standards for its 34 member countries spanning everything from energy to healthcare. An example standard within the scope of the current study is EN 17127: Outdoor hydrogen refuelling points dispensing gaseous hydrogen and incorporating filling protocols.

European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI): develops and publishes standards for the European market. Relevant work includes cybersecurity standards for Europe.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): develops and publishes international electrical and electronic standards. Relevant standards include IEC 62196: Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles and IEC PAS 62840: electric vehicle battery swapping system.

Japan Petroleum Energy Center (JPEC): is a Japanese foundation that conducts research and development for the advancement of energy technologies. Its focus in the area of MD/HD-ZEVs is hydrogen. A key standard is JPEC-S 0003 for hydrogen fueling.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): is a non-profit, standards developing organization that publishes standards within the area of electronics. IEEE standards for MH/HD-ZEV infrastructure include those that govern grid interconnection (e.g., IEEE 1547, IEEE 2030.5) and IEEE P2030.13: Guide for Electric Transportation Fast Charging Station Management System Functional Specification.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO): develops international standards through the collaboration of national standards organization members. Standards span a broad range of technical and non-technical fields. For MH/HD-ZEV infrastructure, standards encompass both charging and hydrogen fueling, including ISO 15118: Road Vehicles Grid Communication and ISO 19880: Gaseous Hydrogen – Fuelling Stations.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): is an international non-profit organization that provides codes and standards as well as other educational resources, such as data analysis research, handbooks, and training within the area of fire safety. Key standards within the scope of this study include NFPA 2: Hydrogen Technologies Code, NFPA 55: Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids Code, and NFPA 70: National Electrical Code.

Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council: is a consortium of major credit card companies that establishes data security standards. A major standard relevant to this study is Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS).

SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) International: focuses on automotive standards encompassing aerospace, ground vehicles, and systems management. Important zero-emission vehicle standards from SAE International include those detailing AC and megawatt DC charging (architecture and protocols), wireless charging, conductive charging, hydrogen fueling components, hydrogen fueling protocols, power quality, gas quality, and safety. Example standards include SAE J2600: Compressed Hydrogen Surface Vehicle Fueling Connection Devices and SAE J1772: Electric Vehicle and Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler.